Archive for the Review Article

Schistomiasis

ByProfessor Mohamed Shalaby
Professor and Former Chairman of the Urology Department 
Assiout University

Schistosomiasis, presently know as bilharziasis to credit Theodor Bilharz the discoverer of the parasite, dates back to antiquity. Its evolutionary origin most likely stems from the Great Lakes region of East Africa, the hypothesized cradle of man’s ancestors . The host and the parasite had over the years become well adapted to each other under environmental conditions ideally suited for the transmission of the parasite. However under natural conditions of the past, severe widespread infections were unusual considering the nomadic nature of man’s life at that time. The ancient Egyptians, through settling and cultivating the Nile Valley, were among the first to contract the disease in an endemic manner. They recognized the disease four to five thousand years ago and mentioned it in medical papyri as well as depicted it in engravings on the walls of temples . Recently, it was confirmed by direct demonstration of the eggs of the parasite in the tissues of mummies through paleopathologic studies.

Plagiarism in Medical Research.. The “Plague” of the New Millennium

ByIsmail O. Abdelhafeez* and Amr E. Riad°
Urology Department Ain Shams University* and Urology Department Theodore Bilharz Institute°

Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as the “wrongful appropriation”, “close imitation” or “purloining and publication” of another author's “language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions” and the representation of them as one's own original work, but the notion remains problematic with nebulous boundaries. There is no rigorous and precise distinction between imitation, stylistic plagiarism, copy, replica and forgery. The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement, while in the previous centuries authors and artists were encouraged to “copy the masters as closely as possible” and avoid “unnecessary invention”.

The 18th century, new morals have been institutionalized and enforced prominently in the sectors of academia and journalism, where plagiarism is now considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics, subject to sanctions like expulsion and other severe career damage. Not so in the arts, which not only have resisted in their long-established tradition of copying as a fundamental practice of the creative process, but with the boom of the modernist and postmodern movements in the 20th century, this practice has been heightened as the central and representative artistic device Plagiarism remains tolerated by 21st century artists.

A Brief History of Urology in EGYPT

By Hussein A. Amin, M.D., FACS.
Former Chairman of Urology Department Benha University

When Nitze invented the cystoscope in 1907, he opened the way to the gradual separation of Urology as a Specialty from General Surgery throughout the civilized world, including Egypt.
Between 1930 and 1940 The Specialty of Urology in Egypt developed separately in two main centers, first Alexandria and then Cairo.

In 1934 an immigrant Russian surgeon, Jacob Bitchai settled in Alexandria and started cystoscopic procedures in the Moassat Charity Hospital. In 1945 he got the lucky chance of treating the Prime Minister of Egypt for urine retention. The case proved to be a prostatic abscess which got drained once the instrument was passed in. The relief was dramatic for the patient, as well as for the surgeon, who was appointed as Visiting Professor of Urology in the newly inaugurated King Farouk (Alexandria) University.


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